In fact, Article 55 of the UN Charter mandates the organization to promote “higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development,” and “solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems.” This reflected the conviction of the UN’s founders that global economic interdependence and prosperity were essential to help prevent the outbreak of another devastating world war.
UN technical and specialized agencies are a critical part of the organization’s efforts to promote multilateral economic cooperation. By establishing international rules and guidelines for everything from intellectual property, to telecommunications, to air travel and postal delivery, UN specialized agencies provide a “soft infrastructure” of universal standards that help American businesses access foreign markets and compete globally.
The work of several of these agencies is reflected below.
- International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): ICAO enables safe air travel everywhere by setting global standards for navigation, communication, and airline safety. These standards map out airspace jurisdiction and establish “free range” airspace over oceans and seas. The agency also sets international standards for limiting environmental degradation and works to strengthen aviation security by conducting regular audits of aviation security oversight in ICAO Member States.
- International Maritime Organization (IMO): IMO sets international safety standards for ships, ports, and maritime facilities, develops ship design and operating requirements, and leads global efforts to prevent maritime pollution. Standards promulgated by IMO are central to the health of the U.S. economy, as more than 90 percent of all international trade is carried out on ships. IMO also works with Member States to address security threats to the international shipping industry, including piracy and terrorism.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): According to the U.S. Patent and Trade Office, intellectual property-intensive industries directly and indirectly support more than 45.5 million jobs in this country, constituting 30 percent of all employment. WIPO encourages innovation and economic growth through the registration and protection of patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property, as well as through adjudication of cross-border disputes on intellectual property.
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU): ITU facilitates the connectivity and interoperability of the world’s telecommunications networks, which is of critical importance to the U.S. telecommunications industry and American defense and intelligence communications capabilities. By allocating radio spectrum and satellite orbits, as well as developing technical standards to ensure that networks interconnect seamlessly, ITU’s work helps make communicating possible even in some of the world’s most remote locations.
- Universal Postal Union (UPU): UPU facilitates postal service across the globe, helping Americans conduct business everywhere, from Beijing to London to São Paulo. By setting standards for the worldwide postal system and promoting affordable basic postal services globally, UPU enables U.S. businesses to utilize the postal system to conduct business at low costs. UPU always plays an important role in mail security and is currently taking steps to combat the trafficking of illicit drugs, particularly opioids, in the mail.
CONTRACTING WITH U.S. BUSINESSES
The UN Secretariat has 40,000 staff and a large global presence, with 13 peacekeeping missions and dozens of other field missions around the world. In order to carry out its global operations, the UN purchases an array of goods and services from private vendors, including telecommunications equipment, financial services, construction, food production, medical care, office equipment, and armored vehicles. According to the United Nations Global Marketplace, American companies were awarded more than $1.7 billion in procurement contracts with the UN in 2019 (the most recent year for which data was available), by far the most of any country.