A civil war erupted in Darfur in 2003 between the Government of Sudan and its allied militia, and other armed rebel groups. Opposition groups led by The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the separate Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) began attacking Northern Khartoum’s government targets, accusing them of ethnic and political marginalization of the People of Darfur. The Sudanese government responded to the actions of the rebels by unleashing Arab militias known as Janjaweed, which began a prolonged and violent campaign known as the Darfur Genocide.
“According to UN estimates, 2.7 million Darfuris remain in internally displaced persons camps and over 4.7 million Darfuris rely on humanitarian aid.”
– United Human Rights Council
In 2006, the government of Sudan and one faction of the Darfur rebel groups negotiated the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), but to limited success. The continued violence and deteriorating humanitarian situation prompted the U.N. to act and establish UNAMID in 2007. In 2011, progress towards stability was attempted with Doha Document, a peace deal signed by the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM), however, this was still interrupted by periods of hostilities.
Darfuris today continue to face numerous problems, which cannot be resolved until peace is established in Darfur. Up to 300,000 people have died and more than 3.3 million people have been forced to flee their homes since the start of the conflict, where many atrocities continue to be committed against men, women, and children. However, improvements have occurred regionally due to UNAMID’s success, causing the Security Council to extend the mission’s mandate for another year in 2017.