The region of Kashmir, situated on the borders of India and Pakistan, has been disputed by the two countries since they both became independent in 1947. Kashmir acceded to India, leading to an outbreak of violence that was ended by a ceasefire and the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force.
The UN mission expanded to become UNMOGIP, and it has supervised the State of Jammu and Kashmir ever since 1949. Hostilities in 1971 led to another ceasefire, mandated through Security Council Resolution 307.
The military in Pakistan continues to report sporadic complaints of cease fire violations to UNMOGIP, but the military in India has not lodged a complaint since 1972. Indian authorities have restricted UNMOGIP’s access, but continue to cooperate with the mission.
Kashmir continues to sustain periods of unrest, despite a ceasefire agreed to by both parties in November 2003, and elections in 2008 and 2014 offering a degree of political stability. Relations between India and Pakistan in the Kashmir region remain tense, most recently characterized by deadly protests in response to the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in July 2016. Anti-India protests resulted in the deaths of over 50 Muslim protestors and the imposition of a media blackout and curfew, the latter of which is ongoing.