The region of Kashmir, situated on the borders of India and Pakistan, has been disputed by the two countries since they both became independent in 1947. Kashmir acceded to India, leading to an outbreak of violence that was ended by a ceasefire and the deployment of a UN peacekeeping force. The UN mission expanded to become the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), and it has supervised the State of Jammu and Kashmir ever since 1949.
Although they agreed on a “Line of Control” in 1972, India and Pakistan do not agree on UNMOGIP’s mandate. The mission can only be terminated by the Security Council and therefore has continued to observe the border and report any ceasefire violations.
UNMOGIP’s mandate is open-ended and does not require continuous renewal.